Category Archives: Independent Studies

Tracking of Mental Workload with a Mobile EEG Sensor

Abstract The aim of the present investigation was to assess if mobile electroencephalography (EEG) setup can be used to track mental workload, which is an important aspect of learning performance and motivation and may thus represent a valuable source of information in the evaluation of cognitive training approaches. Twenty-five healthy subjects performed a three-level N-back […]

A Fuzzy Shell for Developing an Interpretable BCI Based on the Spatiotemporal Dynamics of the Evoked Oscillations

Abstract: Researchers in neuroscience computing experience difficulties when they try to carry out neuro analysis in practice or when they need to design an explainable brain-computer interface (BCI) with a quick setup and minimal training phase. There is a need for interpretable computational intelligence techniques and new brain states decoding for a more understandable interpretation […]

EMOTIV EPOC: 10 years of peer-reviewed research

map of EMOTIV EPOC global projects

Commercially-made low-cost electroencephalography (EEG) devices have become increasingly available over the last decade, thanks to the ease in acquiring EEG signals outside the traditional laboratory setting. As one of the first portable EEG devices available to consumers, our wireless 14-channel headset, EMOTIV EPOC, demonstrated the feasibility of low-cost neuroimaging outside of research laboratories. Worldwide neuroscientists […]

Decoding of the Relationship between Brain and Facial Muscle Activities in Response to Dynamic Visual Stimuli

fractal dimension of EEG signal chart

ABSTRACT In this research, for the first time, we analyze the relationship between facial muscles and brain activities when human receives different dynamic visual stimuli. We present different moving visual stimuli to the subjects and accordingly analyze the complex structure of electromyography (EMG) signal versus the complex structure of electroencephalography (EEG) signal using fractal theory. […]

Physiological State and Learning Ability of Students in Normal and Virtual Reality Conditions: Complexity-Based Analysis

ABSTRACT Background: Education and learning are the most important goals of all universities. For this purpose, lecturers use various tools to grab the attention of students and improve their learning ability. Virtual reality refers to the subjective sensory experience of being immersed in a computer-mediated world, and has recently been implemented in learning environments. Objective: […]

EMOTIV EPOC FLEX has been validated for ERP Research

EMOTIV Flex - ERP research validation graphs

EMOTIV EPOC Flex (Saline and Gel) has been validated to capture quality Event-related Potential (ERP) data for research. The validation was performed by Macquarie University, Australia. The university is in the top two percent in the world and within the top 10 in Australia. ERP helps capture neural activity related to both sensory and cognitive […]

Deep learning-based electroencephalography analysis

Abstract Context. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a complex signal and can require several years of training, as well as advanced signal processing and feature extraction methodologies to be correctly interpreted. Recently, deep learning (DL) has shown great promise in helping make sense of EEG signals due to its capacity to learn good feature representations from raw […]

Asymmetry of Gains and Losses: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Measures

Diego Gonzalo Flores Brigham Young University The purpose of this research was to explore the effects of small monetary or economic gains and/or losses on choice behaviour through the use of a computerized game and to determine gain/loss ratio differences using both behavioural and electrophysiological measures. Participants (N=53) played the game in several 36-minute sessions. […]

A step forward in the quest for a mobile EEG-designed epoch for psychophysiological studies

white 3d brain for wellness safety and productivity

Emotiv in Research We’re excited to share the work from Sebastián A. Balart-Sánchez, Hugo Vélez-Pérez, Sergio Rivera-Tello, Fabiola R. Gómez Velázquez, Andrés A. González-Garrido, and Rebeca Romo-Vázquez from the CUCBA – Institute of Neurosciences and Departamento de Ciencias Computacionales who recently published “A step forward in the quest for a mobile EEG-designed epoch for psychophysiological […]

Single-Trial Cognitive Stress Classification Using Portable Wireless Electroencephalography

This work used low-cost wireless electroencephalography (EEG) headset to quantify the human response to different cognitive stress states on a single-trial basis. We used a Stroop-type colour–word interference test to elicit mild stress responses in 18 subjects while recording scalp EEG. Signals recorded from thirteen scalp locations were analyzed using an algorithm that computes the […]

A Responsible Future for Immersive Technologies

The Rapid Growth of Extended Reality (XR) We are about to break one of the longest and most eagerly-awaited hype cycles in tech history. XR includes virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), haptics, holograms and an expanding range of immersive tools that use and enhance our natural senses. XR tools blur the boundaries between the […]

EEG alpha rhythm detection on a portable device

Giordano B.S.Seco, Günther J.L.Gerhardt, Alex A.Biazotti, André L.Molan, Suzana V.Schönwald, José L.Rybarczyk-Filho Highlights We analysed alpha rhythm using the EMOTIV EPOC+ 14 channel EEG headset. We compared two signal analysis techniques – MP and FFT. EMOTIV EPOC+ and MP can be used in alpha rhythm studies. Abstract Portable EEG devices have a great potential to become efficient […]

Evaluating If Children Can Use Simple Brain Computer Interfaces

Jack Zhang, Zeanna Jadavji, Ephrem Zewdie and Adam Kirton Background: The options for severely disabled children with intact cognition to interact with their environment are extremely limited. A brain computer interface (BCI) has the potential to allow such persons to gain meaningful function, communication, and independence. While the pediatric population might benefit most from BCI technology, […]

Developer Project: EEG Controlled Rover – A Brain-Computer Interface


Here’s how two incredible devs created a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) to control a rover with just your thoughts and an EMOTIV Insight. A BCI is a device that translates neuronal information from the cerebral area of the brain into data capable of controlling external software or hardware such as a computer or a robotic limb. […]

Human Mind Control of Rat Cyborg’s Continuous Locomotion with Wireless Brain-to-Brain Interface

Research Figure

Shaomin Zhang, Sheng Yuan, Lipeng Huang, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Zhaohui Wu, Kedi Xu & Gang Pan   Abstract Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) provide a promising information channel between the biological brain and external devices and are applied in building brain-to-device control. Prior studies have explored the feasibility of establishing a brain-brain interface (BBI) across various brains via […]

Functional State Assessment of an Athlete by Means of the Brain-Computer Interface Multimodal Metrics

Vasilii Borisov, Alexey Syskov, Vladimir Kublanov Abstract The estimation in real time of the functional and mental state level for the athlete during the loads is essential for management of the training process. New multimodal metric, obtained by means of the brain-computer interface (BCI), is proposed. The paper discusses the results of the joint usage […]

Brainwave measurements An Early Indicator of Autism

Researchers in Japan have identified gamma oscillations in the brain as a potential diagnostic for autism spectrum disorder in children. Their findings are published in The Journal of Neuroscience. ASD, a neurodevelopmental disorder that can impair communication ability, socialization and verbal and motor skills, generally starts in early childhood and is diagnosed through behavior observation. […]

Validation of EMOTIV EPOC+ for extracting ERP correlates of emotional face processing

EMOTIV EPOC+ spatial mapping of the electrodes on the scalp

Krzysztof Kotowski, Katarzyna Stapor, Jacek Leski, Marian Kotas Abstract The article presents our proposed adaptation of the commercially available EMOTIV EPOC+ EEG headset for neuroscience research based on event-related brain potentials (ERP). It solves EMOTIV EPOC+ synchronization problems (common to most low-cost systems) by applying our proposed stimuli marking circuit. The second goal was to check the capabilities of our modification in […]

Designing a Brain Computer Interface Using EMOTIV Headset and Programming Languages

Abstract: In this paper, we explore the bio sensory headset EMOTIV EPOC+ in the context of brain computer interfaces which record the brain signals and convert them into keystrokes. Reinforced by programming language constructs, these signals were able to trigger the movements of the finch robot and switch lightbulb objects. The observation and analysis of […]

Neurological assessment of music therapy on the brain using EMOTIV EPOC

F. Mulla; Eya Eya; E. Ibrahim; A. Alhaddad; R. Qahwaji; R. Abd-Alhameed A Cross-sectional study conducted to understand how music therapy can affect patients who suffer from memory loss conditions such as Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. A comparative study is conducted between music and non-music questionnaires, to find patterns and indications of how music can […]

Brain-Computer Interfaces by Electrical Cortex Activity

Brain-Computer Interfaces by Electrical Cortex Activity: Challenges in Creating a Cognitive System for Mobile Devices Using Steady-State Visually Evoked Potentials Pedro Morais, Carla Quintão, Pedro Vieira Abstract The research field of Brain–Computer Interfaces (BCI) emerged in an attempt to enable communication between paralyzed patients and technology. Identifying an individual’s mental state, through his brain’s electric activity, a typical BCI system […]

Music Emotion Capture: sonifying emotions in EEG data

Music Emotion Capture: sonifying emotions in EEG data G. Langroudi, A. Jordanous and L. Li Abstract People’s emotions are not always obviously detectable, due to difficulties expressing emotions, or geographic distance (e.g. if people are communicating online). There are also many occasions where it would be useful for a computer to be able to detect […]

Cognitive, physical, and mental health outcomes between long-term cannabis and tobacco users

M.E.Lovell, R.Bruno, J.Johnston, A.Matthews, I.McGregor, D.J.Allsop, N.Lintzeris   Abstract   Cannabis intoxication adversely affects health, yet persistent effects following short-term abstinence in long-term cannabis users are unclear. This matched-subjects, cross-sectional study compared health outcomes of long-term cannabis and long-term tobacco-only users, relative to population norms.   Highlights We examined health outcomes of long-term cannabis users […]

Electroencephalographic changes using virtual reality program

Electroencephalographic changes using virtual reality program: technical note condensed title: a study using a mobile EEG device. Oliveira SMS, Medeiros CSP, Pacheco TBF, Bessa NPOS, Silva FGM, Tavares NSA, Rego IAO, Campos TF, Cavalcanti FADC. Abstract The aim of the study was to describe the technique of an electroencephalographic (EEG) assessment using the Emotiv EPOC® during the performance of a virtual reality motor […]

A Fitbit for the brain is around the corner

By Betsy Isaacson at Newsweek   Every time you blink, think or move, your brain generates electricity as individual neurons in the skull transmit information needed to make it happen. If we could detect the electrical signals produced by individual neurons, we could, in theory, read a person’s mind.Amazing. And exceedingly difficult. The amount of […]

Towards the bio-personalization of music recommendation systems: A single-sensor EEG biomarker of subjective music preference

Dimitrios A. Adamosa, Stavros I. Dimitriadisb, Nikolaos A. Laskarisb.  School of Music Studies, Faculty of Fine Arts, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract Recent advances in biosensors technology and mobile EEG (electroencephalographic) interfaces have opened new application fields for cognitive monitoring. A computable biomarker for the assessment of spontaneous aesthetic brain responses during […]

Musical Neurofeedback for Treating Depression in Elderly People

Frontiers in Neuroscience. Rafael Ramirez, Manel Palencia-Lefler, Sergio Giraldo and Zacharias Vamvakousis Abstract We introduce a new neurofeedback approach, which allows users to manipulate expressive parameters in music performances using their emotional state, and we present the results of a pilot clinical experiment applying the approach to alleviate depression in elderly people. Ten adults (9 female […]

Introducing Neuroberry, a platform for pervasive EEG signaling in the IoT domain

5th EAI International Conference on Wireless Mobile Communication and Healthcare – “Transforming healthcare through innovations in mobile and wireless technologies”, At London, Great Britain. Evdokimos Konstantinidis, Nicola Conci, Giorgos Bamparopoulos, Panagiotis D Bamidis   Abstract The emergence of inexpensive off-the-shelf wireless EEG (electroencephalography) devices led researchers to explore novel paradigms in the field of Human Computer Interaction. In fact, […]

Using Wireless EEG Signals to Assess Memory Workload in the n-Back Task

Human-Machine Systems, IEEE, 2015   Abstract Assessment of mental workload using physiological measures, especially EEG (electroencephalography) signals, is an active area. Recently, a number of wireless acquisition systems to measure EEG and other physiological signals have become available. Few studies have applied such wireless systems to assess cognitive workload and evaluate their performance. This paper presents an […]

A Fractal-Based Algorithm of Emotion Recognition from EEG Using Arousal-Valence Model

Olga Sourina, Yisi Liu.Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Ave, Singapore Abstract Emotion recognition from EEG could be used in many applications as it allows us to know the “inner” emotion regardless of the human facial expression, behaviour, or verbal communication. In this paper, we proposed and described a novel fractal dimension (FD) based emotion recognition algorithm using an Arousal-Valence […]