Published Papers

Using Brain Computer Interfaces to detect human satisfaction in human-robot interaction, IJHR Volume: 8, Issue: 1(2011) pp. 87-101


This article discusses the use of a brain–computer interface (BCI) to obtain emotional feedback from a human in response to the motion of humanoid robots in collaborative environments. The purpose of this study is to detect the human satisfaction level and use it as a feedback for correcting and improving the behavior of the robot to maximize human satisfaction. This article describes experiments and algorithms that use human brains activity collected through BCI in order to estimate the level of satisfaction. Users wear an electroencephalogram (EEG) headset and control the movement of the robot by mental imagination. The robots responds to the mental imagination may not be...

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Predicting student emotions resulting from appraisal of ITS feedback, Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, Vol. 6, No. 2 (2011) 107 – 133. (in press)


Many researchers have shown the effectiveness of affective ITS for supporting student learning. Support provided to students is usually presented through pedagogical agents capable of expressing emotions through facial expressions, gestures and synthesized speech. Dialogue content is important as it contains information that will help the student learn new information, further understand concepts or correct misconceptions. Although these interventions are based on existing theories, there are still cases when feedback may not fit students as they are very diverse and can be in very different contexts. One very important aspect to consider is how students appraise the feedback given by an ITS....

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Emotional instant messaging with the Epoc headset, M.S thesis., University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 2010, 114 pages; 1488509


Interpersonal communication benefits greatly from the emotional information encoded by facial expression, body language, and tone of voice, however this information is noticeably missing from typical instant message communication. This work investigates how instant message communication can be made richer by including emotional information provided by the Epoc headset. First, a study establishes that the Epoc headset is capable of inferring some measures of affect with reasonable accuracy. Then, the novel EmoChat application is introduced which uses the Epoc headset to convey facial expression and levels of basic affective states during instant messaging sessions. A study compares the emotionality...

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Empirical Evaluation of the Emotiv EPOC BCI Headset for the Detection of Mental Actions


This study evaluated the detection accuracy of one of the first brain-computer interfaces intended for personal use by normal, healthy users: the Emotiv EPOC. This system allows the user to directly interact with computer software through thoughts alone.

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  • Emotiv's state of the art brain-computer interface technology allows us to develop comprehensive solutions for people with severe disabilities giving them independence, communication abilities and improving their quality of life in general. This technology is not just game-changing, but truly life-changing!


  • The Emotiv EPOC is an impressive consumer grade EEG headset that is both affordable and powerful.  The SDK is sleek, easy to use, and rugged.


  • …the new love of my life (is) my Emotiv EPOC neuroheadset. … In short, the future is here, and it is awesome.


Developer Package
Develop applications for the Emotiv EPOC neuroheadset and join the Developer Community by licensing an Emotiv Software Development Kit (SDK). The Emotiv Software Development Kit includes a high resolution, neuro-signal acquisition and processing wireless neuroheadset and our proprietary software toolkit that exposes our APIs and detection libraries. It includes EmotivControlPanel.exe, EmotivComposer.exe, EmoKey.exe, header files and import libraries, and sample code. The EmoComposer & EmoKey is a hardware emulator that will enable you to commence immediate development for the headset. The SDK provides an effective development environment that integrates well with new and existing frameworks. Developer and Enterprise Editions provide:
- Direct API access to all Emotiv detection suite inputs and controls, including training, profile management and gyro outputs
- Program in C++ and compatible languages, .NET (VB.NET, C#), Java
- Developer plug-in available for Unity3D
- Active developer community (exclusive Developer user forum)
Detection Suites
The detection suites that are incorporated into the Emotiv SDK are:

Expressiv™ Suite
The Expressiv suite uses the signals measured by the neuroheadset to interpret player facial expressions in real-time. It provides a natural enhancement to game interaction by allowing game characters to come to life. When a player smiles, their avatar can mimic the expression even before they are aware of their own feelings. Artificial intelligence can now respond to players naturally, in ways only humans have been able to until now.

Affectiv™ Suite
The Affectiv suite monitors player emotional states in real-time. It provides an extra dimension in game interaction by allowing the game to respond to a player's emotions. Characters can transform in response to the player's feeling. Music, scene lighting and effects can be tailored to heighten the experience for the player in real-time. The Affectiv suite can be used to monitor player state of mind and allow developers to adjust difficulty to suit each situation.

Cognitiv™ Suite
The Cognitiv suite reads and interprets a player's conscious thoughts and intent. Gamers can manipulate virtual objects using only the power of their thought! For the first time, the fantasy of magic and supernatural power can be experienced.
Product Awards
Headset Features
  • Limited edition design
  • 14 saline sensors offer optimal positioning for accurate spatial resolution
  • Gyroscope generates optimal positional information for cursor and camera controls
  • Hi-performance wireless gives users total range of motion
  • Dongle is USB compatible and requires no custom drivers
  • Lithium Battery provides 12 hours of continuous use
Licensing Options
The Emotiv SDK Developer Edition is a single user license for indepedent developers (individuals, companies or incorporated entities that had a turnover less than US$100,000 in their last fiscal year) who are creating free and/or commercial applications for the Emotiv EPOC that will be distributed exclusively through our online application store. The license is registered to the individual and is not transferable. The resulting applications, whether free or commercial will be distributed exclusively through our online application store.

The Emotiv SDK Enterprise Edition is a single user development license designed for enterprises (companies or incorporated entities that had a turnover in excess of US$100,000 in their last fiscal year) that want to develop commercial applications for the Emotiv EPOC. The package provides an effective development environment that integrates well with new and existing frameworks and is now available to enterprise developers. Additional headsets for testing and deployment can be purchased for $500/unit.
System Requirements
  • 2.4 GHz Intel Pentium 4 processor (or equivalent).
  • Microsoft Windows XP with Service Pack 2, Windows Vista or Windows 7.
  • 1GB RAM.
  • 50MB available disk space.
  • One or two unused USB 2.0 ports (depending on the number of neuroheadsets you wish to use simultaneously.
Mac Requirements
  • MAC OS X ( 10.5.x, 10.6.x, 10.7.x ).
  • Intel-based Macintosh.
  • Hard disk with 500Mb available.